Popular anatomy of adaptation to physical loads
Adaptation of the musculoskeletal system to physical loads. Adaptation of the musculoskeletal system to physical loads.
Adaptation is the adaptation of the organism to changing conditions of its existence (activity). She, in turn, flows at genotypic and phenotypic levels.
At genotypic level, adaptation occurs over many generations and is transmitted only by inheritance. As an example, you can put the appearance
of racial characteristics in humans. Phenotypic. takes place during the development of the individual and is not fixed in the human genome, that is, not inherited.
In order to learn this topic is necessary to understand some anatomical aspects of the bone.
Each bone is an organ composed of connective tissue, bone marrow and their vessels with nerves. Bone consists of cartilaginous and bony parts. Outside covered by a thin connective sheath – periosteum, which distinguish between fibrous and osteogenic layers. The fibrous layer is superficial and contains many blood vessels and nerves, which in turn pass through deep into her bones, but rather to the medullary canal. Osteogenic layer includes cells that are involved in the formation and development of bones. For example, after injuries and fractures. It turns out that the periosteum is a peculiar case covering the bone on all sides. At the end of a bone is cartilaginous substance contained in the formation of the joint.
In shape, bones are classified as: long, short and flat bones. Consider the anatomical features of the internal structure of the bones in the example of a long bone.
Long bones consist of a diaphysis (middle part), two of the epiphyses (end units) and the metaphysis (the border between the diaphysis and epiphysis).
If cut bone, it visually at the surface is determined by a thin layer of compact substance, he surrounds spongy substance that is located medially relative medullary canal. Compact substance surrounds the medullary cavity and has the shape of a tube.
Adaptation of bone to physical downloads
First to the process of adaptation during exercise humans showed XIX century P. F. Lesgaft. He wrote that the bone increases in size the greater, the greater the activity of the surrounding muscles. That is more than the amount of physical activity, the stronger the bone.
Patterns of adaptation:
1. Activating bone growth factor is regular and intense muscle contraction, i.e. training.
2. The mechanisms that activate bone growth in length and width are different. They are a complex mechanism occurring at the cellular level. Its essence lies in the displacement of the interaction between bone and cartilage. In connection with physical activity and muscle contractions starts thickening and lengthening of the bone by cartilage and periosteum.
3. Physical exercise have different effects on bone size, but rather on its growth and thickening. The increase in length is associated with more genetic aspects than the width. In this regard, we can conclude that regular and intensive physical activity more bone grows in width and thickness than in length.
All changes in the bone under the influence of physical activities strengthen the skeleton as a structure and enhance its strength. A huge role to play under periosteal bone growth (periosteum). All this makes the bone more resistant to twisting and bending. So to break this bone will need to put much more effort than non-trained person. Such adaptation can be observed in representatives of power sports.
Adaptation of bone to physical activity also manifests in its internal structure. Strengthening the middle of the bone (diaphysis) contributes to the thickening of its walls due to the formation of a new compact substance. This can occur both inside and outside the bone.
With regular sports athletes develop characteristic changes of the skeleton. Moreover, the earlier a person engaged in the sport, the more pronounced these changes. Below are examples of the bones of the skull, upper and lower extremities.
The bones of the skull harden and increase in size when General hypertrophy of muscle mass. For example, judo increases the circumference of the skull in its longitudinal and transverse dimensions.
Adaptation of the bones of the upper limb.
The humerus is subjected to large changes in athletes engaged in power sports (wrestlers and weightlifters). In weightlifting shape of the diaphysis becomes cylindrical in shape, due to the expansion of the distal part of the diaphysis.
Also the representatives of weightlifting and wrestlers transverse dimensions of the forearm changed compared to longitudinal. Interesting is the fact that the wrestlers and weightlifters wider than the ulna, and the representatives of game sports and boxers radiation. Similar changes occur in the bones of the hand.
Adaptation of the bones of the lower limb
Women have changed the shape of the pelvis, it becomes narrower and smaller, but denser in its structure. As the level changes of the pelvis depends on the hormonal background of the athletes, but rather the quantity production of male sex hormones. During intense muscular activity level of male sex hormones increases. Major changes of the thigh and Shin bones occur when Jogging, playing sports and weightlifting.
Adaptation of the joints
There are many factors determining the shape of the joint depends on heredity, but also a lot depends on exposure to physical loads. When the processes of adaptation will be the main motion, that is, the physical impact on him. As an example, the formation of a false joint in case of a fracture, when the bone fragments RUB against each other and their surfaces are ground, soon formed a joint.
The fact remains that the representatives of different sports at different angles of flexion and extension of joints, which is associated with the specificity of the exercises.
A person engaged in regular physical activity makes your body beautiful not only outside but also strengthens it from the inside and adapt to possible stressful situations.
The text was prepared by order of the fitness club World Gym Tit
fitness Moscow, fitness Aviamotornaya, fitness Elektrozavodskaya, fitness shosse Entuziastov, fitness Sinichkina ul